How to start a fish farming business

How to start a fish farming business farming

How to start a fish farming business


This is a way or method in which people practice cultivating the land for the production of crops, fruits, vegetables, ornamental and flowering plants, and the utilization of farmland for the production of dairy, a livestock system that transforms land and labor into useful products, poultry, and all other forms of agricultural products having a domestic or foreign market.

Fish farming

Fish farming is one of the most profitable businesses in Nigeria and some people have become rich from it. To become a successful fish farmer you must have a plan and be well determined to start your farming business.

It’s a method that involves the rearing of fish, construction of fish bonds, and others. There are different types of fish which include; catfish, tilapia, salmon, cod, tuna, eel, and others. To start a fish farming business you must follow some steps. Here are the steps that you should take before starting a fish farming business.

How to start a fish farming business

Business plan

The first thing before starting anything business, you must make sure you have a plan. A business plan is a document that will contain your feasibility study and the strategize on how you want to implement your business idea. It will also serve as a guide, aim, and objective throughout your business.

You can use your business plan to access any financial support from any organization maybe from banks, investors, and other, if your business plan is well-documented.


This is also an essential part of any business before you start fish farming make sure that you have enough capital to start with if you have capital all the remaining steps are easy. You can approach any place to borrow money it may be from family and friends, banks, your savings, and other places with a business plan.


After you have successfully created your business plan and capital, the next step is to register your business with a body called Corporate Affairs Commission (CAC) to become a certified business owner.

Location for the fish pond

Getting a good location for the fish pond will determine the scale of your fish farm. Choose between buying land or leasing it, but the best one is to buy a land because leasing land the owner may need his/her land or increase the leasing fees.


Good soil will determine your fish’s health. Ask for advice from a successful fish farmer on how to select soil or you can go for soil testing.

Construct the pond

If you are new to fish farming, it is advisable to consult an expert in other to know the type of pond that is good for you based on where you intend to carry out the activities of the farm. The soil should be clay, have a good shape, spaces, good drainage, and have inflow and outflow of water. A good pond should be free from dirty water. Choose the types of ponds you want to use, there are three ponds; earthen pond, concrete pond, and plastic tank pond.

There must be enough water, your farm will determine the water will be needed.  If you want to start your fish farming business at a large, it’s good to have a borehole, well, or storage to supply water to fish.

Equipment needed

When planning to start your fish farming some equipment is necessary to have such as; a pump, water treatment, hydroponic beds, net, water testing, and so on.

Decide the type of fish species

Select the species of fish you want to start with, there are different species of fish but the most acceptable and common one in Nigeria is catfish because it requires little effort, it’s fast in growing, and it can be reared in any size of ponds.

Purchase of fish(fingerlings)

Purchase the number of Fingerlings you want to start with your farm from any trusted dealer. Fingerlings are small babies of fish that can grow to any size. For a beginner, it’s good to buy fingerlings. It can reach maturity within some months.

Fish feeding

Give your fish enough food with good nutrition so that they can grow rapidly. Select the type of food you want, there are three types of food namely; Natural feed( insects, snails, aquatic plants, plankton, worms, and so on), Supplementary feed( waste from the kitchen or any agricultural product), completed feed( this is for man-made food that has a good nutrient).

Control of pests and disease

The disease can cause great damage to your farm. The owner should take good care of the farm before the disease attack. Always treat your ponds regularly and avoid dirt water sometimes.


To harvest your fishes it depends on the size of the fish species. It is done either by draining water away from the pond or by using a net. It’s more advisable not to harvest all your fish at once and it should also be done when the temperature is low.

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